Early Diagnosis Tests against Cancer

Is there cancer in your family?

Mutations from parents to children or variations in genes can greatly increase the risk of cancer. In fact, some hereditary syndromes almost 100% cause of some types of cancer.

Fortunately, if you or your family know if you are at risk or not, it will enable both you and your doctor to take the right step in acting against hereditary cancer and reduce the risk to a significant extent. If your family has a history of such illness, Myriad genetic tests can determine if you have some genetic variations that can cause hereditary cancers.

Learn Genetic Tests

We know from research that 10% of cancers pass through generations. These syndromes are known as hereditary cancers and there are some genetic tests that can determine the individual risks for such cancers. If you or an acquaintance has such a family history of cancer, is in risky ethnic population, or if there are other factors, it means that you may be at risk for cancer and that you have a reason to be suspicious. We recommend genetic testing for individuals to live a longer, healthier life and to take action in cancer prevention.

Regardless of the final result, there are many benefits to taking the test. If a family member is cancer (but distant), if there is an inherited gene mutation, then the chance not only increases for the present and future but also there is a risk to pass it onto a new generation. If you or someone you know is carrying a cancer gene mutation, it may be a signal for the risk of getting cancer before someone in the general population. The earlier the test is done, the easier it will be to manage the risk appropriately.

Do not forget that your doctor is the most valuable resource for information and advice on hereditary cancer screening.

Genetic Test Information:

  • Genetic tests can be done by taking an oral sample or drawing blood.
  • The insurance coverage usually covers 90% of the test cost.
  • Privacy laws are protecting you.
  • There are optional payment plans if necessary.

Many cancers are usually found out incidentally as result of environmental conditions and lifestyle preferences. In some families, we somehow see more cancer than expected. Since families with hereditary cancers are at a higher risk for cancer than the general population, it is important to identify families with cancers related to an inherited gene mutation. These subgroups or populations can be organized according to their family lineages, such as the presence of a single type of cancer, the simultaneous occurrence of the same or different types of cancer in an individual, or the pre-defined mutations of certain cancer genes.

  • Sporadic Cancer – Cancer occurs by chance. People with sporadic cancers usually do not have relatives who have the same type of cancer.
  • Familial Cancer – Cancer is probably the result of a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Familial cancer patients may have one or more relatives with the same type of cancer; however, heredity may not appear in a particular model (for example, the risk of cancer does not go directly from the parent to the child)
  • Hereditary Cancer – The cancer which occurs when there is a mutated gene is transferred from the parent to the child in the family. People with inherited cancers are likely to have relatives with the same type or related type of cancer. More than one cancer may develop in them, or the age that cancer is seen may be earlier than the average age

The following information can be used to identify and organize communities and persons at greater risk than the general population. Hereditary Cancer Testing should be seriously considered in these groups:

Hereditary Breast and Ovarian cancer:   

  • Ovarian cancer at any age
  • Two primary breast cancers *
  • Male breast cancer
  • Triple negative breast cancer
  • Cancer of the pancreas with a breast or ovarian cancer *
  • Ashkenazi Jewish Root with HBOC-associated cancer *
  • Breast cancer in two or more relatives under the age of 50
  • Breast cancer at three or more relatives at any age
  • Previously defined BRCA mutation in the family

Lynch syndrome:

If a person has a PERSONAL STORY* about any of the following:

  • Colorectal or endometrium cancers before the age of 50
  • Before age 60 High MSI Histology before the age of 60:
    • Musenöz
    • Signet ring (Stone Ring Cells-Krukenberg Tumor)
    • Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes
    • Crohn’s-like lymphatic reaction histology
    • Medullary growth pattern
  • Abnormal MSI / IHC tumor test result (Colorectal / Endometrial)
  • 2 or more Lynch syndrome cancers at any age **
  • Lynch syndrome cancer ** and one or more relatives with Lynch syndrome cancer **
  • Previously defined Lynch syndrome mutation in the family

If a person has a family story * related to any of the following:

  • Two or more relatives with Lynch syndrome cancer **, one before age 50
  • Two or more relatives with Lynch syndrome at any age
  • Previously defined Lynch syndrome mutation in the family

** Lynch associated cancers are colon, endometrium, stomach, over, ureter / renal pelvis, biliary tract, small intestine, pancreas, brain and fat adenomas.

Adenomatous Polyposis Syndromes:

  • Individuals who are clinically affected by FAP (100 or more colorectal adenomas)
  • Individuals with multiple colorectal adenomas (generally 10 or more cumulative adenomas)
  • Relatives carrying APC or MYH mutation

Hereditary Melanoma:

  • Two or more melanomas in the person or in the family
  • Melanoma and pancreas cancer in the person or in the family
  • P16 mutation carrier relatives

Hereditary Pancreatic Cancer:

  • Pancreatic cancer patient with at least one close relative# with pancreatic cancer163-168
  • People with two or more close relatives# with pancreatic cancer
  • First degree relatives# with pancreatic cancer or Ashkenazi Jewish people with pancreatic cancer histology169-171
  • Previously defined PALB2 or BRCA2 mutations172-178 in the family

You can answer the Hereditary Cancer Questions to find out if you are a candidate for testing. This quiz can help them get the information they need to discuss with their risk of cancer with their healthcare provider and ask for further evaluation. If someone matches any of the red flags above or takes the quiz and finds red flags in their own history or their family history, they may benefit from hereditary cancer testing.

Benefits of Genetic Testing

There are many different types of genetic tests. The tests at Myriad include hereditary cancer tests, prognostic tests and personal tests. The purposes of our tests are:

  • To provide valuable information to you and your doctor when you organize your medical treatment plans.
  • To inform you and your doctor whether there is a genetic mutation known to raise the risk for some hereditary cancers.
  • To make it easier for your doctor to better anticipate the progress of your illness, and it can make your treatment conscious.
  • To help your doctor make important decisions about your medical treatment.

If cancer is common in your family, taking a genetic test can be an important step for you. If your test result is higher than average:

  • More frequent follow-up can help detect cancer at an earlier and more manageable stage.
  • Preventive strategies that can reduce the risk of developing cancer can be evaluated.
  • You and your doctor can make more informed decisions about treatment options.

Being informed about a hereditary mutation enables you to identify cancer at an earlier and more manageable stage or to reduce the risk of developing some cancers, and gives you the power to take the necessary steps.

October 29, 2017 Genel
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